The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface. The diagram is misleading because the reaction force would appear to be acting in the wrong direction. With this, each element of the tyre is able to generate a slightly lower force, but this balance is outweighed by the presence of a larger number of elements (contact area). This increases up to a point until the tyre rubber has been overworked and grip reduces dramatically, also known as the ‘cliff’. Oversteer is what occurs when a car turns (steers) by more than the amount commanded by the driver. Cornering force to the left will generate a tyre slip to the right. The faster you take a corner, the more pressure you put on your tyres. The study of these motions began in the late 19th century and continues today. 0.2 lbf cornering force / lbf load / deg slip angle CC! The load sensitivity of most real tires in their typical operating range is such that the coefficient of friction decreases as the vertical load, Fz, increases.

slip angle is introduced, the contact patch deforms as lateral forces act on the tyre. In the presence of a non-zero slip angle, this torque tends to steer the tire toward the direction in which it is traveling, hence its name. Conversely, understeer is what occurs when a car steers less than the amount commanded by the driver. The rate at which cornering force builds up is described by relaxation length. As well as slowing down, you need to take bends as smoothly as possible. Another cause of rolling resistance lies in the slippage between the wheel and the surface, which dissipates energy. Their tread patterns grip the road tightly, particularly during high-speed cornering manouevres. Either of the two can be considered the action, while the other is its associated reaction. This deformation generates, strain (elongation) within the molecular structure of the, A fundamental measure of the grip capability of a tyre in the lateral sense is known as the cornering stiffness. The friction circle graphically illustrates the limits of a tyre generating both longitudinal and lateral acceleration simultaneously, and allows understanding of how the vehicle is being driven relative to this.

Privacy Policy | Hans Bastiaan Pacejka was an expert in vehicle system dynamics and particularly in tire dynamics, fields in which his works are now standard references. It is also described as the distance that a tire rolls before the lateral force builds up to 63% of its steady-state value. As with deformation of a spring, deformation of the tire contact patch generates a reaction force in the tire; the cornering force. It is important to understand that the CoF does not increase proportionally with increasing reaction force (vertical tyre load). Pneumatic trail or trail of the tire is a trail-like effect generated by compliant tires rolling on a hard surface and subject to side loads, as in a turn.

Tire Uniformity refers to the dynamic mechanical properties of pneumatic tires as strictly defined by a set of measurement standards and test conditions accepted by global tire and car makers. Overall, in the search for maximising cornering stiffness, the CoF must be maximised at all times.

Slip angle describes the deformation of the tire contact patch, and this deflection of the contact patch deforms the tire in a fashion akin to a spring. A general trend seen in tyres is a longitudinal force peak at a slip ratio of around 0.3 – 0.4. To fully understand tyre dynamics, the first thing you need to get your head round is slip angle. A fundamental measure of the grip capability of a tyre in the lateral sense is known as the cornering stiffness. is recovered when the pressure is removed. The effect is a net increase in tyre grip. [1]. Cornering force or side force is the lateral (i.e., parallel to the road surface) force produced by a vehicle tire during cornering.

This is why the wheels, suspension chassis and set-up are all vital tools which can help to tune tyre grip. Torque steer is directly related to differences in the forces in the contact patches of the left and right drive wheels. By eliminating any grooves cut into the tread, such tyres provide the largest possible contact patch to the road, and maximize traction for any given tyre dimension. This is defined as the angle (degrees) formed between the actual direction of travel of the wheel and the ‘pointing’ direction of the wheel (perpendicular to the axis of rotation). Weight: The higher the weight, the higher the cornering force. Imagine the contact patch as a matrix of discrete elements. With this, each element of the tyre is able to generate a slightly lower force, but this balance is outweighed by the presence of a larger number of elements (contact area). [1]

All these topics and more will be covered in our new racecar vehicle dynamics series.

The effect is a net increase in, The temperature of the tyre compound affects adhesion by increasing both the conformance and the penetration of peaks and valleys in the road into the contact patch. between the two when a lateral acceleration is experienced by a racecar.

This gives you the option to accelerate as you leave the bend.

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